Most yachts and boats are made of fiberglass reinforced plastic (GRP) today. This strong and resilient material is a chemically hardened or resinous resin and a strong reinforcing material, usually a combination of glass fibers, the material being referred to as glass fibers.
The resin can combine polyester, solvents, catalysts, and other additives. The reinforcement is fiberglass fabric (plain fabric), roving (rough, basket-like fabric) or carpet (a random combination of many short fiber fibers).
Production is a plain female mold (typically made of GRP laminate) with a typically shaped wooden plug that defines the shape of the hull. The hull of the hull was constructed with a gelcoat resin sprayed with a primer primer preformed on the surface of the mold.
The bottles and resins are combined in one hand to combine the structure of the hull. Thickness can be varied by the composition and number of layers and the right compromise between the strength and light necessary for the different parts of the hull. The deck is made in the same way.
Then the real skill lies in the equipment. This includes the proper connection of athwartships wave-reinforcing panels, interior doors and GRP, wood and metal elements. & # 39; Sandwich & # 39; The construction industry includes GRP laminates surrounding the core of closed cell foam or balsa wood. This provides stiffer structure, weight, but has a lower impact resistance. The fittings must be firmly connected to the sandwich slabs and the decks so as not to allow water to enter and core mutilation.
Shipbuilding leads to more and more advanced materials. Epoxy resins and graphite aramid fibers, such as KevlarTM, carbon and other enhancements, promise remarkable strength, stiffness and structural weight-efficiency.
Since the beginning of time, wood is a traditional shipbuilding material. Ancient ships, and until the nineteenth century, trade and naval vessels were made of wood. Interest in sailing and sailing has made it easier, but stable, constructed and carefully designed wooden buildings. Even 100 year yachts, if properly designed, built and cared for, can still be useful.
Carvel has always been the most widespread form of tree construction. Typically, they form an oak frame with a steam-bent frame to support the boards from the stems to the sack. They are made of lightweight wood in small boats and in tougher vessels than for elms and larger craft. The seams between the boards are compressed so that the structure is watertight.
In the past, a common clinker / lapstrake method for small boats is a method where relatively slim, shaped planks overlap the seam. Mechanical fasteners (often copper rivets) are attached to the edges of the board, both against leakage and the fixing of the inner reinforcement parts.
Smoother design is achieved by formatted wooden construction, which includes the production of the only bonded unit for the entire hull.
Wooden shipbuilding has been a kind of revival in recent years and more people have discovered the more traditional craftsmanships. In addition to rods from past crafts, original construction techniques have been developed using advanced materials such as epoxy resins to increase strength and most importantly reduce maintenance while retaining good appearance.
Choosing good building materials and closely associating members is essential to the durability of yachts. Building quality will take a long way in preserving water and preventing rot.
The strength and durability of the metal structure are attractive, especially for larger yachts. Except for small boats, conventional riveted steel or aluminum joints allowed welded shells.
There are two types of hull design possible. The transverse frame has flexible, square or T-shaped reinforcement inside the hull, in the same pattern as the traditional structure of the traditional wood. The longitudinal framing runs in front and rear, supported by the bulkheads themselves.
Welding is initially used to fit shaped and curved hulls to the frame grid and align the edges of the plate. The welding paths are then made to fill each screw and seam, for strength and water tightness. Additional selective welding is possible to connect the hull to the frame and brackets in a satisfactory manner.
During welding, the welded metal shrinkage, as it is cool, is a critical question for the final shape. Therefore, appropriate bending order should be followed from the vessel to the right and from the deck to the backbone above the overlap to prevent distortion of the shape of the yacht from the desired geometry and to prevent the build-up of internal tensions which may limit the external load bearing capacity of the hull structure.
The professional design – full-scale drawing of hull shape lines, precise construction and adjustment of the frame – and the right welding sequence – can achieve an accurate, reasonably smooth hull. However, on the surface of the appropriate yacht-type hull, a layered surface is required above the layer application. After priming for corrosion and proper bonding, the filler is wrinkled and then hand-polished to the desired accuracy and smoothness with long, flexible grinding discs. The usual or sprayed polyurethane coating involves work.